Credit: Robert M. Yerkes (1921) “Psychological Examining n the United States Army,” Memoirs of the National
Academy of Sciences, Vol. XV. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Part Six of the beta IQ test (shown left), developed by psychologist Robert M. Yerkes, was given to Army recruits to determine their innate intelligencethe innate potential to learn and solve novel problems.
. Yerkes intelligence exams (alpha, beta and individual) were culturally biased, taken under markedly different conditions and tended to reflect years in the U.S. and familiarity with dominant cultureThe full range of shared, learned, patterned behaviors, values, meanings, beliefs, ways of perceiving, systems...
, rather than innate intelligence. Nevertheless, the early 20th century IQ exams have been the basis for standardized tests ever since.
Beginning in the 1900s, scientists began to develop different methods for measuring intelligence. These tests were used often to justify racial and ethnic discriminationpolicies and practices that harm and disadvantage a group and its members.. The results of these intelligence tests were influential in shaping U.S. immigrationthe act of entering a country of which one is not a native to become... policy that limited immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, and in justifying race-based segregation in public education, and U.S. conscription during World War I. Previously, the scientific debate centered largely on perceived differences in racial intelligence based on cranial size.