1600-1775: Colonial Authority
Jamestown, Virginia
Credit: The New York Public Library, Mid-Manhattan Library Picture collection; published 1876
Lord Dunmore
Source: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington D.C.

1776-1800: The Paradox of Freedom and Slavery
Boston Massacre
Credit: The New York Public Library, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture/Photographs and Prints
Division. (W.L. Champney & J.H. Bufford, 1770)
Thomas Jefferson
Courtesy: Independence National Historical Park Collection, Philadelphia.
Oil on canvas painted 1791 by Charles Wilson Peale.

1800-1850s: Expansion of Slavery in the U.S.
Kansas-Nebraska Act map
Credit: Library of Congress, American Memories Collection; by William C. Reynolds, 1856, New York. “Reynolds
Political Map of the United States”
Dred Scott
Credit: Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis, Missouri

1830s-1850s: Westward Expansion Post-Mexican American War
Battle of the Alamo
Credit: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, created by Percy Moran 1912. Copyright by
Gerlach Barklow Co., Joliet, Illinois.
Juan Cortina

1850s-1870s: Civil War, Reconstruction and Jim Crow
Battle of Gettysburg
Credit: Library of Congress, created and published by Currier & Ives, New York, 1863.
Abraham Lincoln
Credit: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, photographer Anthony Berger gelatin silver
print, 1864

1870s-1890s: U.S. Control of American Indians
Alice Fletcher
Credit: Idaho State Historical Society, Photographed by E. Jane Gay, 1889
George Bird Grinnell
Credit: Library of Congress, Ruthven Deane Collection, 1900

1880s-1900s: Anti-Chinese Laws and the Spanish American War
Yellow Terror
Source: Wikipedia, public domain image of 1899 editorial cartoon
John Marshall Harlan
Credit: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, copyright by Napoleon Sarony, New York City,

1910s-1920s: European Immigration and Defining Whiteness
Arriving at Ellis Island
Credit: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, George
Grantham Bain Collection, 1907
Bhagat Singh Thind
Copyright David Bhagat Thind, All rights reserved.

1930s-1940s: The Great Depression and World War II
Works Projects Administration
Credit: National Archives, cords of the Work Projects Administration (69-AG-410),
Photographer unknown, 1939
Japanese Internment Camp
Credit: The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, Clem Albers, April 1, 1942.

1950s-1960s: Civil Rights Era and the Vietnam War
Pedro Pans
Credit: Elly Vilano Chovel at Florida City camp. Photos are the property of Operation Pedro Pan Group, Inc. All
Rights Reserved, 2006
Protest Little Rock Nine
Credit: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, U. S. News & World Report Magazine Photograph
Collection, 1959

1960s-2000s: The Beginning and the End of Affirmative Action
University of Michigan Protest
Credit: Associated Press, World Wide Photos. All rights reserved.
Justice O’Connor
Credit: United States Federal Government, The Supreme Court Historical Society

1990s-2000s: NAFTA, the Patriot Act and the New Immigration Backlash
Immigration Protest
Credit: Associated Press, World Wide Photos. All rights reserved.
Ted Kennedy
Credit: Biographical Directory of the United States Congress


1680s-1800s: Early Classification of Nature
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach skulls
Credit: Special Collections and Rare Books, University of Minnesota Libraries
George Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
Source: Wikipedia, Musee Buffon a Montbard, author Francois-Hubert Drouais

1770s-1850s: One Race or Several Species
Morton Race Table
A table from Types of Mankind, by Josiah Clark Nott and George Robert Gliddon, 1854.
Courtesy Michael Blakey
Louis Agassiz
Drawing courtesy History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries

1830s-1890s: Race Science Exhibitions
Hottentot Venus
Credit: Wikipedia
Chang & Eng Bunker
Credit: North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina Library at Chapel Hill

1850s-1880s: Measuring Race
Nott/Glidden table
Credit: Wikipedia, scan from “The Mismeasure of Man” published 1857 by Josiah Clark Nott and George
Robert Gliddon
Credit: National Archives and Records Administration

1890s-1930s: Eugenics and Physical Anthropology
Source: Wikipedia, Credit: Harry H. Laughlin, The Second International Exhibition of Eugenics
Ales Hrdlicka
Credit: National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution (BAEGN04815)

1900s-1950s: Critiquing Race
Jesse Owens
Credit: Ohio State University Archives
Franz Boas
Credit: American Anthropological Association

1900s-1930s: Race and Intelligence
Yerkes Intelligence Test
Credit: Robert M. Yerkes (1921) “Psychological Examining n the United States Army,” Memoirs of the National
Academy of Sciences, Vol. XV. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Robert Means Yerkes
Credit: Yale University, Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library

1920s-1960s: Modern Evolutionary Perspectives
Sewall Wright
Credit: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry
Frank Livingstone
Photo courtesy: Dr. Amy Livingstone

1980s-1990s: The Debate Over Race and Intelligence Redux
Bell Curve
Photo courtesy: Science Museum of Minnesota
Stephen Jay Gould
Credit: Harvard University News Office

1990s-2000: Ancestry, DNA and Biotechnology
World Map
Credit: Science Museum of Minnesota, based on the work of Dr. Kenneth Kidd
Credit: National Institutes of Health


1600-1770: The Colonial Experience
Bacons Rebellion
Credit: National Park Service, Colonial National Historical Park
Jonathan Edwards
Credit: Wikipedia

1770s-1830s: Slavery and the Invention of Race
Slave Ship
Source: Notices of Brazil, Walsh, 1831
Charles Alexis Henri Clerel de Tocqueville
Source: 1899 edition of “Democracy in America”

1800s-1830s: Indian Wars and Westward Expansion
Trail of Tears
Credit: The Granger Collection, New York
Andrew Jackson
Source: Official White House portrait, The Presidents of The Unites States

1800s-1850s: Resisting Slavery
Simon Legree
Source: Wikipedia; Magic lantern series of about 1885 of Uncle Tom’s Cabin
William Lloyd Garrison
Source: Wikipedia; engraving from 1879 newspaper

1840s-1850s: Manifest Destiny and the California Gold Rush
San Francisco, Chinatown
Credit: Arnold Genthe, The Street of Gamblers (Ross Alley) 1898, Gelatin silver print. Fine Arts Museums of San
John L. O’Sullivan
Source: Wikipedia, Credit: Latin American, Filibusters

1840s-1890s: The Famine and the Irish Race
Leaving Ireland
Credit: The New York Public Library, Mid-Manhattan Library Picture collection; published 1898
Uncle Sam Lodging
Credit: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, published by Mayer Merkel & Ottman, NY, 1882

1860 1870s: Emancipation and the Backlash
NY Draft Riots
Source: African-American Registry
Frederick Douglass
Credit: National Archives Gift Collection, George K. Warren, 1879

1860s-1880s: Transcontinental Railroad & the Western Indian Wars
Golden Spike
Credit: The Andrew J. Russell Collection, the Oakland Museum of California
Sitting Bull
Source: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

1870s-1930s: Immigration, Black Migration and U.S. Colonialism
Birth of a Nation
Source: Wikipedia, Credit: D. W. Griffith, 1915
W.E. B. DuBois
Source: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, created by Cornelius M. Battey, 1919

1920s-1940s: Nazism and World War l
NaziGerman Bund
Credit: Anonymous
Zoot Suit Riots
Violence erupts during the Zoot Suit Riots in Los Angeles, California, from the Los Angeles Daily News
Negatives (Collection 1387). Department of Special Collections, Charles E. Young Research Library, UCLA.

1945-1950s: Post-War Economic Boom and Racial Discrimination
Levittown, NY
Credit: The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, William Thomas, 1950
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth Clark
Credit: Kenneth and Mamie Phipps Clark, with permission of the University Archives, Columbia University in
the City of New York

1960s-1970s: Civil Rights, Vietnam and a Decade of Protest
Cesar Chavez
Credit: Cesar Chavez photo taken in 1974 by Jerry Lewin, found in the book Nosotros: The Hispanic People of
Oregon, Essays and Recollections, edited by Erasmo Gamboa and Carolyn M. Buan
Selma March
Credit: American Memories, Library of Congress, Charles White, photographer, Selma, Alabama, March 7,
1965. Photo courtesy of Representative John Lewis

1980s-2000s: Anti-Immigrant Movement and Racial Profiling
Border Patrol
Credit: Photo courtesy of ICE, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
Korean Stores LA