Credit: Elly Vilano Chovel at Florida City camp. Photos are the property of Operation Pedro Pan Group, Inc. All Rights Reserved, 2006
Operation Peter Pan (Operación Pedro Pan), was a program coordinated by the U.S. government, the Catholic Church and Cuban exiles, in which over 14,000 children were brought from Cuba, after Fidel Castro came to power in 1959, and resettled with adoptive families in the U.S. Rumors that Cuban children would be sent to Soviet work camps were aired on U.S.sponsored radio broadcasts to Cuba. Historians have argued that the U.S. visa waiver program deliberately spread the rumors that children would be taken from their parents by the Cuban government, so as to foster a climate of anti-Soviet, anti-Communist sentiment in Cuba.
While the federal government began to address centuries of racial discriminationpolicies and practices that harm and disadvantage a group and its members. through the courts in cases such as Brown v. Board of Education, which overturned the ‘separate but equal” doctrine in Plessy v. Ferguson, Congress began to address the reality of institutional racismthe embeddedness of racially discriminatory practices in the institutions, laws, and agreed upon values and... throughout the U.S. Motivated by the Civil Rights movementLegal and other efforts led by African Americans against racism and segregation and for the... of the 1950s and 60s and the media attention it garnered-from the Montgomery bus boycott, to 1 Birmingham bombings, to the March on WashingtonCongress enacted two significant measures that, initially, were designed to overturn race-based discrimination against blacks, but have provided the basis for civil rights for all U.S. citizens. The first was the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which barred discrimination in public facilities and employment, and the second was the Voting Rights Act, which was enacted a year later, barring practices aimed at disenfranchising black voters.